Tax Deed Investing – What is an "Upset" Sale?

In Pennsylvania, some counties have two different tax sales; the “upset” sale, and the “judicial” sale. If tax sale properties are not sold at either of these two sales, the property then goes on the “repository” list and can be sold by private bid. The upset sale is held every year in the fall. It’s called an “upset” sale because the minimum bid for the properties in this sale is known as the “upset” price; which includes any unpaid taxes from the county as well as any municipal liens. If a property is not sold in this sale, it is sold in the “judicial” tax sale in the spring. Not all Pennsylvania counties have judicial sales but they all have an upset sale.

What you may not know about the upset sale is that all properties are sold subject to any liens or judgments. That means that if you purchase a tax deed at this sale, you are responsible for any other unpaid liens or judgments on the property. Most people assume that when they buy a property at a tax sale, they don’t have to worry about other liens such as a mortgage. This is not true at the upset sale. If you plan on bidding at any of these sales this fall, you’d better do your homework!

So how do you find out about other liens or judgments on tax sale properties? There are two ways that you could do this; one is going to cost you some money and the other is going to take some of your time. The first way is to hire a title search company to do a simple title search on all of the properties in the sale that you are interested in bidding on. This could turn out to be a little costly, so it’s not my method of choice. Another reason why I don’t hire a title search company to do title searches for me before the sale is that many of the properties will come off the sale list the day before or the morning of the sale. You may pay for a few title searches that you don’t even need because the properties that you wanted to bid on are not sold at the sale.

Last time I went to the Monroe County Upset Sale, I didn’t even bid on any properties. I researched about 10 of the properties in the sale that were in an area that I was interested in. Through my research I narrowed this down to only two properties that I wanted to bid on. I did all of my research the day before the sale and I had checked that morning to make sure that all of these properties were still in the sale. But by the next morning (the morning of the sale) the two properties that I was interested in had paid and were no longer included in the sale. I’m glad that I did my own research and did not pay a title company to do it!

That brings us to the second method for finding out about liens and judgments on tax lien properties, and that is to do it yourself. There is a little bit of education and some time involved, but it is well worth it. In most states, to do this type of research you would go to the County Hall of Records. In Pennsylvania the office that has the records that you need to search is the office of the Prothonotary. The people in this office are usually very helpful and will help you to look up what you need to know. You’ll have to look for liens and judgments by the name of the owner. If there are co-owners or joint owners, you will want to search under both names.

Keep in mind, however, that if new liens were not yet recorded they could slip through the cracks in the system and you won’t be able to find them. There is always some degree of risk when you buy a tax deed, even if you are careful and do your homework. This is why it is always recommended that you do not buy tax deeds in your own name, but in the name of a separate entity. It could be a corporation or an LLC. If you need help forming a corporation or LLC for the purpose of buying tax deeds, I know of two excellent programs to help you. They were both created by Darius Barazandeh, Texas attorney and tax deed expert.

An Introduction To Real Estate Property Management Software

The real estate market is a booming industry. The success of the industry is a result of competition and the intervention of modern technology. Most people in the business prefer to use real estate property management software to stay ahead in the race. This software has been designed to cater to commercial and residential property, office buildings and apartments.

Real estate property management software is an effective and easy-to-use tool. This software helps people understand the real estate business. It is a quick response application that can store each detail of every transaction. This helps study non-payments and full-payments of rent, and maintains a detailed report of rent receipts and invoices.

Property owners are able to key inputs as and when required. The secured system is intelligent and allows changes from authorized personnel. Real estate property management software can evaluate an unlimited number of properties and units simultaneously. The software stores detailed data related to rent payments for all individual properties. This systematic approach eliminates any problems due to taxation.

Real estate property management software generates automated reports in cases of wrong payments and non-payments. The software does away with the practice of owners waiting for rent payments. All maintenance expenses or any extra revenue statements are regularly updated. The software also stores tenant information.

Residential property managers must select property management software that is most suited for their work. These applications are available with one-month money-back guarantees.

The residential property management system is considered to be time- and cost-effective for a manager and resident. The application can create a personalized website for an individual company in a relatively short time. This allows prospective and existing customers to visit the web site. This is a convenient method to view pictures of property, pay rent and submit maintenance requests.

Robotium Vs Appium

A number of reports have highlighted the rapidly growing popularity of mobile apps. With more and more enterprises launching mobile applications, the users now have option to choose from millions of apps available at various app stores. So it has become essential for businesses to attract, impress and engage users by launching apps that work flawlessly across multiple devices and operating systems.

That is why; the QA professional has to use advanced test frameworks to assess the look, feel, functionality and performance of the mobile app across various devices and platforms in a faster and more effective way. Both Appium and Robotium are popular open source mobile test automation tools. But the two widely used mobile testing frameworks differ from each other in terms of features, usability and performance.

Robotium is designed with features to speed up Android application testing. It supports almost all versions and subversions of Google’s mobile operating system. The huge worldwide market share of Android makes it one of the most widely used mobile testing frameworks. Appium, on the other hand, comes with features required to test cross-platform mobile apps. It supports popular mobile operating systems like Android and iOS, along with Firefox OS. Thus, testers can use this framework to test apps developed by targeting multiple mobile operating systems.

Robotium focuses only on Android application testing. So it supports only one programming language, i.e., Java which is what developers use while developing Android apps. But Appium supports several programming languages including Java. It includes a WebDriver interface that supports a number of popular programming languages including Java, C#, PHP, Ruby, Perl, Python and JavaScript with Node.js. It can therefore effectively test mobile apps developed using commonly used web technologies and programming languages.

As Robotium supports a single programming language, it becomes difficult for QA professionals to write platform-independent test scripts. They further cannot modify and reuse the test scripts as they are written for the Android platform only. But Appium makes it easier for QA professionals to write platform-independent test scripts in their preferred programming languages. They can even reuse the same test script to test the application across multiple platforms.

Nowadays, enterprises have the option to develop native, hybrid, and mobile web apps. So testers need tools to assess different types of mobile apps within a shorter amount of time. As Robotium supports only Android, it can be used for testing native and hybrid apps developed by targeting Google’s mobile operating system. On the other hand, Appium can be used for testing native, hybrid and mobile web applications. In addition to testing iOS and Android apps, the testers can also use Appium to check how the mobile web app works on web browsers like Chrome, Safari and Firefox.

Both the mobile app testing frameworks do not have inbuilt “record and play” functionality. But the QA professionals have the option to use Robotium Recorder to record unit tests while interacting with the Android device. However, they have to incur additional expenses as it is a licensed software. The framework still comes with features to help testers write system, function and acceptance tests. But it requires testers to access the source code during mobile app testing automation. Again, it does not allow testers to run tests across multiple devices in a parallel way. But Appium enables testers to automate their mobile testing efforts without recompiling or modifying the mobile apps. So they can test the app as it will be shipped or delivered to the client.

Both the frameworks are supported by large and active communities. But many professionals feel that members of the Appium community are more proactive and stronger that the Robotium community. On the whole, the QA professionals can take advantage of the features provided by Robotium to test Android applications thoroughly and effectively. But they have to use Appium to effectively automate testing of cross-platform mobile apps.

Full Time Gambler Reveals the Truth About Sports Betting

I’ve often heard it said, “you can’t win betting on sports.” The truth is sports betting is one of the few types of gambling that you CAN win at. The problem is there are so many factors which need to be taken into account, it can be very overwhelming.

There are playing conditions, injuries, home or away games, players health, defense, offense, past performance, coaches, importance of match, rivalries to name a few just to calculate a very precise outcome.

What’s The Odds?

Most people betting sports aren’t aware that you only need to win 52.5% of your bets to break even. 56% winners makes you very successful. If you can manage to average above 56%, you are going to make an enormous amount of money.

Now 56% doesn’t sound like much, does it? just over half your wagers.

The rest is discipline, money management and no doubt, a good selection method. But let’s be clear, there is no magic bullet, no quick and easy method… or is there?

Are You In It For Fun Or For Money?

It can definitely be fun and very exciting to win, especially when you’ve got a big bet riding on the game. Or maybe you just lost a game and decided to double up on the next one to try and “get even.”

If you’ve ever tried this tactic, I’m sure you know all too well that more often than not you lost the 2nd game too. Now you’re broke, starting over, building up a new bankroll and hoping for a better outcome the next time… But as you know, hope is not a winning strategy.

This kind of heart-stopping action is not for me. For my money I prefer a more predictable type of wagering whether it’s betting on sports or any other form of gambling. I like to have more control over the result.

Just to be clear, there will be losing games and maybe even losing days, but by managing your money, patiently building your bankroll, you can comfortably afford to take a swing at those parlays.. that is a winning strategy.

Betting a small consistent amount per game is not exciting… but that is what intelligent, professional sports bettors do. So the question is, “are you doing it for the excitement, or for the money?”

Taking The Gambling Out of Sports Betting

A winning bettor always tries to take the gamble out of the game. Each bet is a calculated risk. There is no magic method that will bring in thousands of dollars overnight.

Taking down a steady monthly profit, working only 5 minutes a day IS the only way. And if you let your account multiply for a few months, before long (months not years), you will reach a point where you could be bringing in hundreds or even thousands of dollars of profit each month… now that’s magical.

Sports Investing will with near certainty turn a small amount of capital today into significant monthly income, month after month and year after year.

There are people who say you can’t win betting on sports… they’re just wrong. Wishing you the best of luck always.

Simple Accounting For The Small Business – Bookkeeping Using A Simple Spreadsheet Template

Starting a small business out of your home, offering products or services like business consulting, photography, selling on the web or a MLM? You are now faced with tracking all your expenses and revenues for your business and you certainly don’t have the money yet to engage a bookkeeper or accountant. If your business is a sole proprietorship, whether it be a Canadian Proprietorship or a US-based Proprietorship, you do not require an accountant to submit your company financials (books) to the IRS (USA) or Revenue Canada). Your business revenue and losses are reported as part of your annual personal income tax. For this small business start-up, you won’t need to buy fancy accounting software, like Quick Books or AccPac to track your business.

Only as part of incorporating Bizfare Enterprise Inc in 2005 was it a requirement to engage an accountant. My accountant did insist on using Quick Books software for my business accounting. Up until then using a simple spreadsheet template served my business accounting needs for over ten years. This simple spreadsheet accounting stood the test of multiple audits by Revenue Canada (CRA and Revenue Canada Goods and Services Tax. Both the hardcopy columnar pad and an electronic spreadsheet version of my financial books were accepted by Revenue Canada. (BTW the audits disclosed more ways for me to claim back additional taxes for the previous three years! Now that’s my type of audit!)

In your new start-up business venture, you likely will generate somewhere between 10 to 30 accounting transactions per month. These transactions would be items like Expense, Revenue (sales), Liability (Loan) type transactions and Sales Tax (Federal + State/Provincial) Collection/Deductions. These transactions are further broken down into various Business Accounts. All the Accounts you set up for your business is called a Chart of Accounts. Recording your business financial transactions (Journal Entries) can be executed with pen and ink on an accounting columnar pad or electronically with your computer using a spreadsheet program (MS Excel, Open Office, Star Office).

Whether you employ electronic or hardcopy media, you need to develop a simple Journal template to create your Business Synoptic Journal. This Synoptic Journal format has the advantage of allowing you a complete view of all your individual journal entry transactions against all your various Business Accounts. Creating this Synoptic Journal is easier to do than you think and requires no prior accounting or bookkeeping knowledge.

TIP #1: You could further reduce the accounting line items (Journal Entries) by consolidating like items such as ‘all the Sales for the month’ and ‘all parking receipts for the month’ into one totaled line item for the month.

Where do you start to identify the various Business Accounts required for your Synoptic Journal?

If you currently work for a company or government, secure of one of their employee expense forms. Look at each of the areas identified as expenses – meals, mileage, hotel accommodations, taxi, car rental, telephone & cell phone, air fare, office supplies, etc. This is an excellent place to identify the various Business Expense Accounts you need to set up for your business accounting books. To complete your business Chart of Accounts, include a Business Bank Account, Sales, COGS (Cost of Goods Sold), Sales Tax Collection, Marketing Expense and others as required. Each of these Accounts will be a listed as a title across the top of each column of your Synoptic Journal. Each row (line item) will be the individual journal transactions entered by you. The journal transactions are grouped and summarized for each business month; usually, January through December.

So your Synoptic Journal would look something like this Sample Synoptic Journal at

The column headings might be in this order (from left to right):


TIP #2: Unless your business is Incorporated or an LLC, you don’t need to go through the expense of opening a business account with your bank. Usually Business accounts charge a higher monthly fee, charge for printing checks (cheques) and don’t offer any interest on your monthly account balance. Instead, open a separate personal bank account (maybe savings). This will show the ‘taxman’ that you are keeping the business separate from your personal banking. Remember you are a sole proprietor and all your business income (and losses) are to be applied directly to your personal income tax submission ( a s per IRS and CRA).

To save you time and make is very simple, I have already created a simple spreadsheet Synoptic Journal template that performs all the calculations for each month and rolls up the 12 business months so it can easily be included in your annual personal income tax preparation. This Synoptic Journal template has Debit/Credit checks and balances, tracks sales taxes, mileage and totals each account for your entire fiscal year. If you want this FREE Bookkeeping template, you can get it at Communicate Innovate. With a few key strokes, which will help identify yourself, I will gladly send you this FREE Synoptic Journal Template and also any future Small Business Tips.

TIP #3: One Rule of Accounting is that every time you record a journal entry (line item which applies the transaction against the appropriate business accounts) the Debits and Credits MUST REMAIN EQUAL at ALL Times. This Debit Equals Credit calculator is built into this FREE Bookkeeping Template. When you have completed entering a line item (journal transaction), check to ensure that the amount the the Debit cell equals the amount in the Credit cell. If they are not equal, you have not entered the amounts properly in your journal transaction. Correct the problem before entering your next journal entry.

You are now equipped to capture your business financial books with some simple accounting software. Happy bookkeeping! And Happy Selling!

Brides: Picking Your Fine China

I spent a good part of my life working in ceramics; the major part working with fine china and crystal. A friend of mine suggested that I write an article to help brides choose their china.

It’s funny, but I seldom write about ceramics anymore. I wrote a couple of books on the subject and I was editor of Ceramic Industry Magazine so it’s not that I’m not well practiced in the subject. Writing is always an avocation with me and separate from my profession.

I wrote novels in my spare time. I did write one novel that was centered in a pottery in Lancaster County Pennsylvania. The novel is Bone China. Bone China is a complex detective story where the detective wonders what’s happening to missing people from a small Pennsylvania town. Are they being cremated in an abandoned ceramic factory and being used to make bone china? Nazis? That’s as close as I got to ceramics.

Well let’s get to the point. Let’s cover some of the factors you should consider when selecting your fine china. First, remember that porous china is not covered here. It is called semi-vitreous ware, queen’s ware, and such. Stoneware is not covered either.


Bone China

There are several kinds of fine china in which you will be interested. The first is Bone China.

Bone china is made from bone ash. Bone ash is made from the high-temperature calcinations of animal bones. Bone ash is a commodity. That means it comes from a number of different countries and the bones of many types of animals are used.

The bones used to make bone ash come from camels, horses, cows, hogs, llamas, and other critters.

The question here is: Does it matter to you?

If you are Jewish, it might.

I can only say this: When the bones are calcined all organic matter is destroyed. The bone ash becomes exactly like the natural mineral found in phosphate rock. You can’t tell the difference once it is in the ceramic.

I’ve been a consultant to Jewish Rabbis over the year. The consensus has always been that the high temperature purification of the bone ash makes it kosher. If you are concerned about this, talk to your rabbi.

Remember this: The bone ash used to make particular china may not have been made from hog bones. Most large china companies specify that the bone ash not contain hog bones. However, from my experience in the industry, most bone ash suppliers can not always guarantee that some hog bones might creep into their process.

Many Jewish brides have decided that bone china is kosher. I agree with them for one reason, most Rabbis agree with them.

How much bone ash should be in bone china? The classical formula is 50%. If the content is below 47% you might lose one of the most important properties of bone china. Bone china should be white, not off-white to any degree.

Bone ash contributes translucency to the composition. If you put your hand behind a bone china plate, you should see it vividly. The reason is that the refractive index of the phosphate compounds formed is the same as the glass formed in the ceramic. Since they are the same, light is not diffracted.

Just remember this. Bone china should be stark white and translucent. That means that there is very little ball clay in the composition. Fine English kaolin retains the whiteness of the body. Chinastone is a flint / feldspar mixture used by British bone china potteries for the same reason.

Bone china is made by the china process. This means that the body is fired to a high temperature until the body is completely dense or vitreous. This first firing is called the bisk fire or bisque fire. After the bisque fire, the ware is heated, glazed, and fired at a lower temperature. Decorations are applied by decalcomania, hand painting, embossing, etc. More on that later.

Non-bone Fine China

Most manufactures make an Ivory grade of china. Ivory is very popular and also very beautiful if the body is formulated correctly and the body matured completely during bisk firing.

The composition is what we ceramic engineers call “feldspathic.” That means the body contains the mineral feldspar. The concentration of feldspar is high to guarantee that the body will be vitreous. Canadian feldspar (nepheline syenite) is sometimes used to lower bisk firing temperatures.

English kaolin guarantees the desired degree of whiteness and translucency. Only small amounts of ball clay are used. The remaining ingredient is flint. For both fine china and bone china the body must be ground to fineness to develop the desired properties. Glazing and decorating are the same as for bone china.


All of this got started by the Chinese. The word “kaolin” (china clay) was derived from the name of a Chinese province. Maybe the province still exists under the same name for all I know. The classical composition is 50% kaolin, 25% flint (silica), and 25% feldspar.

European Porcelains are popular with brides. Some manufactures have been able to approach the whiteness and translucency of Chinese Porcelain. Note that bone china is the closest match to Chinese Porcelain.

Porcelain is made by the porcelain process. While the china process starts with a high bisk fire, the porcelain process starts with a low bisk fire. The ware is easily grazed because it is porous after bisk firing. No heating is required. The final glost fire is a high-temperature fire in contrast to the low-temperature glost fire in the china process. In the porcelain process, the body and glaze are matured together. This adds strength.

Because of the higher temperatures required to decorate porcelain, the result is not always as desirable as with fine china (often the best decorations) and bone china.

Parian China and Frit Porcelain

Low-temperature porcelains are made are very attractive. These are less popular than bone china, porcelain, and fine china for American brides.

Evaluating Your China or Porcelain

I don’t want to frustrate you with more technical details. Let me just list a few items to consider relating to the desirability and life of your china.

The Foot and Back

When ceramic engineers go out to dinner, the first thing they do is turn the plate over. Why? Well, first they can see who manufactured it. Some fine restaurants use fine china (includes bone china). Most others use Hotel China, an American invention designed specifically for restaurant service. What is suitable for restaurants is probably not suitable for your china cabinet.

Looking at the foot, and I suggest that you look at the foot first, see if it is glazed. If it is unglazed rub your finger carefully and slowly around the foot. Watch for sharp glaze projections as you do this. I don’t want you to cut your pretty finger.

Is the foot rough?

If it is rough, it should be buffed until it is smooth using a buffing stone. An unglazed foot will require that you keep doilies between the plates in your china cabinet so that the foot does not rub the glaze on other plates. You will have to be careful while washing the dishes and while clearing the plates from the table. You don’t want scratches on your glaze, do you?

Most fine china and bone china has an unglazed foot. The foot is polished at the factory before you get it, but make sure you check every piece.

If the foot is glazed, look for pin marks on the under surface of the glaze. Such ware can not be fired on the foot because it will stick to the kiln setters. The pin marks may be hardly noticeable. Some manufacturers set the ware on tiny ceramic spheres rather than on pins. The marks are hardly noticeable. If there are pin marks, make sure they have been polished to remove rough edges.

Look at the manufacturers mark on the bottom of the plate. Is it centered? Can you easily read it? Does it have the name of the pattern? Now decide if you care about such features. Take one last look at the back of the plate. Are there any glaze flaws? Does the glaze application look uniform on the back of the plate? Are there any pits, inclusions, or blemishes? Any rough spots?

The Front of the Plate

Turn the plate over and rub your finger around the rim. Is it as smooth as silk or is it rough? Any thin spots? Look at the surface of the glaze for any pits or impurities. Remember that different manufacturers have different inspection standards. A very small pit might be considered allowable. One manufacturer might have a standard that says no pits except a tiny one on the back of the plate.

Most fine china and bone china manufacturers use lead glazes. The reason is the brilliance of the glaze. Is the lead a health problem? Not under normal circumstances. Most people only use their fine china nine (9) times each year. It could be a problem is you give your child his or her orange juice in a fine china cup every day. Don’t do that.

So, is the glaze brilliant and free of defects?

The Decorations

Although manufacturers have reduced the number of decorating firing by combining functions, traditionally there are three decorating firings. The first decorating firing is called the “decal fire” and that is when decals are placed according to design. Decals come as screen printed or lithographic. The color in screen printed decals is thicker and often more intense than in lithographic decals.

The enamel or heavy color is placed next in the “enamel fire.” Now days, enamel may be placed on the decal and combined in a single firing.

The last firing is the “precious metal” firing or “geld firing.” Gold or platinum is applied to the rim and certain areas of the design. This too is sometimes applied to the decal and omits all but one firing.

Here are some decoration considerations. Are the decorations positioned properly on the plate? Rub your finger over them. Are they sitting on top of the glaze or are they buried deep into it? Decals should sink into the glaze so that they do not wear off. They should not sink so far that they are no longer attractive. Hard gold is gold that will not buff that has sunk too far into the glaze. Soft gold is gold that is sitting on top of the glaze and is easily rubbed off. Watch for soft gold on porcelain. The glaze is very hard and it is hard to get decorations and precious metal to sink into the glaze. (“Hard” in this sense means not very fusible during deco fire.)

Service Problems for Fine China

Fine china faces your eating utensils, your dish washer, and storage.

Yes, fine china can be damaged in your china cabinet if the foot of one plate rubs on the surface of another plate which scratches the glaze. Once scratched, it is scratched. Glaze hardness is highest in high-temperature porcelain and lowest in low-glost-fire fine china. Bone china is in between. Bone china is a good choice for beauty and durability.

Knife marking is the worst from the utensils. The marks can actually be cuts in the glaze and can’t be removed. They also can be metal rubbed from utensils which can often be removed by SoftScrub®. Here, I suggest that you do not use extremely hard steak knives in fine china service.

Cups and Other Shapes

Look at the handles of the cups. I said, “cups,” not “cup.” You must look at several to tell the quality.

If the cup handle is formed with the cup by slip casting, it should look perfect.

If the cup handle is stuck to the cup after the main body of the cup is formed, it may not be perfect. Stuck handles sometimes fall off in service. This is a manufacturer’s nightmare.

The problem is that a plastic formed handle does not “fit well” (during shrinkage) on a plastic formed cup.

There is not as much of a problem with cast handles being placed on a plastic formed cup. (The problem is technical and I’ll not explain it here. E-mail me if you really want to know.)

Look at the join where the handle meets the cup. Does it look neat and clean? Is there excessive glaze buildup where they join? You don’t want anything ugly do you?

Check the bowls and see if they will stack. If they will not stack, I have a suggestion: run! (Well, if you can put up with the bowls not stacking and you just love the design, go ahead and buy them.)

Teapots should have their handles checked as with cups. Check the knobs on the lids of teapots and casseroles. Do you think they will stay on? Are they attractively applied?

The Guarantee

Read the guarantee carefully. (Well, have someone read it.) Ask how long replacement for your pattern is guaranteed. You don’t want to have to go to Replacements Inc. (, if you don’t have to.

Yes, you can e-mail me with questions.

Oh! Congratulations!

The End

Bride, china, how to choose china, bone china, porcelain, china care, china defects, fine china, parian, frit porcelain, processing, storage

Teenagers Should Be Allowed to Work During School Holidays – What Is Your Opinion?

Nowadays, it is not outlandish to see many teenagers are working part-time as promoters or sales girls during the school holidays. Parents are willing to allow their children to work part-time so that their children will spend their school holidays well without wasting any time on surfing the internet and playing computer games. However, some parents do not allow their children to work part-time because they have the fallacy of thinking that their children are not mature enough to work. In my opinion, I partially agree that teenagers should be allowed to work during the school holidays due to the reasons that teenagers can earn their own pocket money, learn ample knowledge from working and the teenagers’ academics performance will be affected.

School holidays are defined as a period for the students to rest and keep away from their school routines. Whereas, working is known as physical or mental activities carried out to fulfill the tasks and is rewarded in monetary terms. One of the points I will highlight is pocket money can be earned by teenagers through working during the school holidays. For example, those who work as promoters in the shopping malls can earn RM5 an hour as their extra income. Thus, their parents’ burden can be reduced as teenagers do not need to ask for pocket money from their parents for daily expenses. Teenagers can even save the money they earn from working to buy reference books and stationery that they need. Therefore, parents do not need to worry on the school fees as their children are able to fork out on their own. Teenagers can also afford to buy things that they long for such as phones, laptops and shoes. In short, teenagers should be allowed to work during the school holidays because of the extra income they can get.

Furthermore, teenagers can obtain ample knowledge by working during the school holidays. It is due to the fact that they will have the opportunity to be exposed to working life at early age. Thus, they will be more experienced and know the ways of dealing with people from different social and financial backgrounds. They also know how to cooperate with other people to complete the tasks given. Hence, their social skills, a yardstick for them to reach for the stars in their future jobs, can be enhanced. They will be able to express their ideas clearly to their colleagues and supervisors. Teenagers can also know ways of utilizing time well as they need to complete the jobs that are assigned by their supervisors in a given time. Thus, they will learn to be punctual. They will become more independent as they have to look for the effective avenues to solve any problems that are faced by them in work. In brief, students’ knowledge can be widened through working and, therefore, teenagers should work during their school holidays.

However, teenagers should not spend most of their school holidays in working part-time because their academics performance may be affected. Teenagers should spend their school holidays by attending more tuition classes or seminars and doing more revisions. As a result, they can prepare and perform better in their academics. Conversely, if teenagers use most of their time working, they will have no time to do revisions and exercises from reference books because teenagers who are tired after working are unable to concentrate on their studies. Hence, teenagers who do not do their revisions during their school holidays will find difficulties to catch up with their studies when the following semester resumes. Their academic results will deteriorate due to lack of revisions. In summary, teenagers should not work during their school holidays as this will disturb their academic performance.

In conclusion, teenagers should be given leniency to work during the school holidays so that they can earn extra income and their knowledge can be widened. On the contrary, it is undeniable that working part-time during the school holidays may affect their academic performance. Thus, teenagers should put in unremitting efforts to balance the need and the wants so that they can perform well in academics.

The Nature of Being a Dream Pursuer

Some of the most successful individuals in the world are dreamers. Or should I say, dreamers who succeeded. It's not easy being a dreamer and pursuing a dream. Many people are dreamers but few pursue their dreams. Upbringing has a lot to do with that. How you were raised by your parents, for the most part, dictates whether or not you will pursue your dreams. Many parents will tell their children then can become anything they want in life, but then put their thumb down on their children when they feel their children express an interest in pursuing some dream that has an unlikely probability of being realized. The fact is most dreamers who pursue their dreams fail. They fail because they quit. They give up on their dream. They are influenced by those around them to take the well-marked road of life, traveled by the masses, instead of the road that has no markers and, worse, leads you to other roads that also have no markers. You see being a dreamer means you are one of those oddities in life. You are on the outside looking in at everyone else who is doing the safe thing. Being a dreamer is fraught with so many risks, so many variables. It is, quite frankly, a miracle that we have any dreamers at all who pursue their dreams. So, you see, being a dream pursuer is a very rare thing indeed.

Napoleon Hill, author of Think and Grow Rich, was a dreamer. He spent years, uncompensated, interviewing Andrew Carnegie (founder of Bethlehem Steel, at one time the largest steel manufacturer in the world). Mr. Carnegie agreed to share with Mr. Hill, at length, his secrets to financial success. There were many secrets and many lessons to be taught. During this very long and drawn out process of interviewing Mr. Carnegie, Mr. Hill's family and friends urged him to stop wasting his valuable, uncompensated time with Mr. Carnegie and get a job like everyone else. Mr. Hill acknowledges that he considered quitting many times. Only by sheer willpower and a fanatical desire to pursue his dream of uncovering the secrets to success was Mr. Hill able to continue on. Although he wavered, and often, he kept at it. He continued to pursue his dream. It was not easy but we all know how the story ends. Think and Grow Rich is still today a bestselling self-help book. To date, it has sold over 30 million copies. Simply amazing! What would have happened if Mr. Hill listened to his family and friends and quit?

The Downside of Being a Dream Pursuer
There is a cost to being a dream pursuer. It takes a commitment of time to pursue a dream. There may also be a financial commitment. What you lose in pursuing a dream is potential compensation for the time "wasted" on pursuing your dream. You may also lose money invested in pursuing your dream. There is also the emotional turmoil exacted upon the dream pursuer that takes a toll. The ups and downs of pursuing a dream are enough to drive you mad. One minute you sense your dream being realized only to have the rug pulled out from under you. The next minute your dream seems to have gone bust, only to have some event occur that reignites the potential realization of your dream. Dream pursuers know too well what I am talking about here. When your investment in time and money begins to affect your family and, perhaps friends, that is when the pursuit of your dream is challenged. That is when everyone around you will begin telling you it is time to stop pursuing your dream; that you are just wasting your time. You will be told you need to pull your head out of the clouds and stop chasing the brass ring. And these people are all correct. Being a dream pursuer means you are not living your life like everyone else. You are on the outside looking in. Most dreamers end their pursuit when their relationship with their immediate family begins to unravel and come apart. That is when most dream pursuers cut bait. Losing your family is simply not worth the realization of the dream. It just is not. The dream dies and the dreamer jumps on the road well traveled; family intact.

The Upside of Being a Dream Pursuer
Dream pursuers who succeed (dream achievers) change the world. They are the reason why we have TV, radio, airplanes, computers, cell phones, software applications, frozen food, toys, no more black death. Dream achievers change the world in which we live and reap untold financial rewards. Rewards that can not be spent in five generations, let alone one generation. Dream achievers alter the course of humanity. They prove everyone else wrong and the masses jump off the road they were on to jump on the road traveled by the dream achiever.People are sheep. The are risk averse followers of the crowd. That is why when a dream pursuer succeeds, he takes on a new status. He becomes god-like.

If you have a dream you are pursuing, congratulations. I applaud you. Most likely, you will quit at some point. Most everyone does. But I hope you do not. I hope this article gives you the inspiration to continue on; to will yourself to continue pursuing your dream. The world depends on dream pursuers. Without them we would still be living in caves and painting on the walls.

Procurement Definition

Procurement can be defined as the purchase of merchandise or services at the optimum possible total cost in the correct amount and quality. These good and services are also purchased at the correct time and location for the express gain or use of government, company, business, or individuals by signing a contract.

The process of acquisition of goods or services required as raw material (direct procurement) or for operational purposes (indirect procurement) for a company or a person can be called procurement. The procurement process not only involves the purchasing of commodities but also quality and quantity checks. Usually, suppliers are listed and pre-determined by the procuring company. This makes the process smoother, promoting a good business relationship between the buyer and the supplier.

The synonyms for procurement, which are gain, purchase, buy, and acquire, can throw light on the meaning of procurement. The process of procurement may differ from company to company, and a government institution may have a slightly different procurement process compared to a private company.

Procurement can also be simply defined as the procedure in which goods or commodities are bought when prices are low. Procurement is advantageous if the goods are bought in bulk. E-procurement is another method in which the electronic media is used for acquiring or purchasing goods. Everything is processed electronically, from the search for the right bidder to the delivery and payoff.

The procurement procedure may differ according to the product and the uses of the product. Healthcare equipment needs to be efficient and reliable, and the procurement process is carried out meticulously in order to avoid the purchase of faulty apparatus. Another important factor that is usually included in the definitions of procurement is the amount in which the product is bought. This is important because the amounts of goods bought are inversely proportional to their cost.

Thus, procurement is a process that is carried out by almost every company and individual for its own personal gain or for profits, which involves buying of commodities by choosing the appropriate bidder.

5 Fail-Safe ‘Cash-Generating Strategies’ To Make Tons of Money Online From the Comfort of Your Home

One of the most positive things than can happen to a person is to begin operating an online business from home and being successful. A number of reasons quickly come to mind as to why large segments of the population are drawn to earning an income through an affiliate program; first and foremost, the need to deal directly with the public has been eliminated, management responsibilities are nonexistent and the need to stock an inventory is absent.

Being an internet genius is not necessary when operating a home business online and just as important, creating an income can be done in the comfortable surroundings of your home and during the hours you choose.

Just as in any business situation it is beneficial to understand the ins and outs of the methods of creating an online income utilizing an affiliate program. Comprehending the fundamentals and becoming proficient with certain approaches and strategies are a few of the items that need to be understood before you are literally able to see a cash flow from the internet. The level of your success and income rests totally in your hands and yours alone.

One of my strong recommendations is to steer clear of the numerous scams scattered throughout the internet. These would include: internet pyramids, CPA proposals, offers to read various documents, such as e-mails and completing surveys are but a few that fall into this category. Programs such as these only put money in the owner’s pocket.

If you are truly interested in successfully creating an online income with an affiliate program, I have listed five online income-generating methods that are a guaranteed success:

5. E-Book Creation: This method is a very lucrative and aggressive approach to earning an income. But, it does require a high level of effort and experience to create a substantial income by writing e-books. This method is not recommended for beginning internet entrepreneurs.

4. E-commerce: Online marketers have done very well with this approach and it is considered the granddaddy of internet businesses. This approach includes selling actual products and does require an extensive business background, loyalty between providers and buyers and it could possibly be very time-consuming depending on your experience level. This approach would not be my recommendation either until you have had a chance to get your feet wet.

3. CPA Network: This method is easy and conducive in creating an online income stream. You receive payment for each referral you submit to various organizations and product owners. On the flip side, CPA programs often pay pennies for each referral and it may take some time before you begin to see any type of significant income. It would require a massive amount of traffic to create a significant and continuous income.

2. Google AdSense: Operated similar to the CPA Network program, you receive payment for every referral you submit and for the completion of particular forms by the individual conducting the search. The primary difference lies in the fact that all transactions are conducted through Google.

1. Affiliate Marketing: This approach would be my number one choice to generate a substantial and continuous income. You do not need to be concerned with selling products, maintaining inventory or receiving a relatively small sum for referrals obtain with difficult to direct traffic.

For each product I endorse, through the internet, I get a commission, quick and simple. Typically, the commission amount ranges in the 60 percent bracket and is based on the product cost; isn’t that staggering?

Website or blogs are often the method of choice for the majority of affiliate marketers when endorsing products. But, this is really not necessary and you can begin creating an income without either.

Without a doubt, the fastest and most simple method to create an online income is through Affiliate Marketing. I generally take about an hour for website development, then endorse a few products, sit back for a couple of hours and then watch the cash flow begin.